Shifting circular: Urban infrastructure and policy changes towards renewed territorial metabolisms
A comparative analysis of the Paris, Hamburg, Amsterdam and Brussels metropolises
In this research, the author describes, characterises and compares policy and planning initiatives to promote the circular transition from the experience of key stakeholders operating in these four European metropolitan contexts. This research aims at identifying and putting into perspective some of the physical, institutional, legal, or economic infrastructures conducive for the development of the circular economy in urban contexts. Specific attention is paid to material flows and sectors with a high circular potential in metropolitan areas. This study ultimately proposes a reflection on issues, drivers, good practices, and remaining gaps to trigger a circular economy. From the experience of European metropolitan contexts, this piece of work aims at inspiring stakeholders concerned with urban transition issues in a global perspective. In the end of the report, a few inspiring initiatives are presented in more depth.